Thursday, April 23, 2009


 The Kubuntu Desktop

Kubuntu is an official derivative of Ubuntu using the KDE environment instead of GNOME. It is part of the Ubuntu project and uses the same underlying system. It is an exciting distribution that showcases the full potential of the KDE desktop. Kubuntu shares the same repositories as Ubuntu, and relies on the same underlying architecture.

The K Desktop Environment

A powerful graphical desktop environment, combines the ease of use, contemporary functionality, and outstanding graphical design with the technological superiority of the Kubuntu operating system. 

Photo Management


Digikam is now included by default. This advanced digital photo management application provides you with the tools necessary to view, manage, edit, enhance, organise, tag and share photographs. Organising both photos and photo albums is a snap with Digikam as it allows you to sort chronologically, by directory layout, or by custom collections.

Power Management

Kubuntu received a new power management overhaul with the latest release. Guidance, the power management system, allows users to select various functions to control the power of their portable computing system, whether it is controlling the brightness of the display during low battery, locking the system upon closing the lid or controlling access to multiple batteries.

 zeroconf services in Kubuntu


Easy Networking and Printer Sharing

Zeroconf and print sharing let you browse the local network for available services. Both are now simple to setup and maintain requiring nothing more than ticking a box to enable the feature.

Accessibility Profiles

Kubuntu now offers users the ability to use a preconfigured accessibility profile depending on the type of disability right from the initial point of setup. This provides users the accessibility features they need in order to not only install the Kubuntu operating system but to use the system on a daily basis for all of their computing needs. Press F5 at the CD boot screen to choose a profile.
Visit the Kubuntu download page to try it out for yourself.

Wednesday, April 22, 2009

Contribute Ubuntu

The Ubuntu community consist of individuals and teams, working on different aspects of the distribution, giving advice and technical support, and helping to promote Ubuntu to a wider audience. For more detailed information about how to contribute, see the Contribute to Ubuntu article on the Ubuntu wiki.


Contribute by writing new software, packaging additional software, or fixing bugs in existing software.
Help produce official documentation, share the solution to a problem, or check, proof and test other documents for accuracy.
Put your creativity to best use by improving the look and feel of Ubuntu. Help design graphics and backgrounds, or themes of the next release.
Share your technical know-how with other users by joining email and discussion lists, or IRC (chat) channels and respond to users requests for help in forums.
 Local Community ("LoCo") teams
Find and join an official LoCo team near you, or get advice on how to create a team in your local community.
Ubuntu releases new versions every 6 months and many testers are needed who can report or confirm problems. If you like to be on the cutting edge of Ubuntu, consider helping!
 Bug Squad
Help make Ubuntu even better by working with bug reports to ensure they're complete, understandable and if possible, reproducable. Anyone can help!


 BrainstormUbuntu Brainstorm
Brainstorm is a special web site where everyone can participate. It is full of ideas on how to improve Ubuntu. Once ideas mature, they move on to become Specs, which are detailed blueprints of future Ubuntu features. Anyone can suggest new ideas and the community votes to show which ideas are the most important.

Ubuntu 9 JauntyJackalope/TechnicalOverview


The Ubuntu team is happy to bring you the latest and greatest software the Open Source community has to offer. This is their latest result, the Ubuntu 9.04 release candidate, which brings a host of excellent new features.
For information about Kubuntu, see


Get it while it's hot. ISOs and torrents are available at:
Local mirrors are also available:

  • FIXME: import mirror list automatically

Upgrading from Ubuntu 8.10

To upgrade from Ubuntu 8.10 on a desktop system, press Alt+F2 and type in "update-manager -d" (without the quotes) into the command box. Update Manager should open up and tell you: New distribution release '9.04' is available. Click Upgrade and follow the on-screen instructions.
To upgrade from Ubuntu 8.10 on a server system: install the update-manager-core package if it is not already installed; edit /etc/update-manager/release-upgrades and set Prompt=normal; launch the upgrade tool with the command sudo do-release-upgrade; and follow the on-screen instructions.

New features since Ubuntu 8.10

GNOME 2.26

Ubuntu 9.04 RC includes the latest GNOME 2.26 desktop environment with a number of great new features, including:

  • brasero, version 2.26.0, developed by Philippe Rouquier and Luis Medinas, as an all-in-one CD burning application. Brasero is now the default disc burning utility in Nautilus.

  • Improved handling of multiple monitors with an updated gnome-display-properties by Federico Mena Quintero.

X.Org server 1.6

The latest X.Org server, version 1.6, is available in Jaunty. The latest Mesa 3D DRI, version 7.4, is also available. A number of video cards have been transitioned to free drivers as part of these updates.
The -ati driver has received numerous fixes and performance improvements. It now uses the EXA acceleration method by default. 2D acceleration support for the newest R6xx/R7xx family of cards is also available. 3D support is available up to R5xx cards for -ati. An updated -fglrx proprietary driver is available for R6xx/R7xx users who need 3D support.
The -intel driver now uses GEM for memory management. The new UXA acceleration architecture and DRI2 is available as an option.

Wacom tablet hotplugging

Wacom tablets now are enabled automatically when attached, no longer requiring xorg.conf modification. Button mapping configuration is not yet supported, but can be set manually by adding an fdi file to /etc/hal/fdi/policy/.

New style for notifications and notification preferences

Included in Jaunty is a simple menu which can be used to set preferences for notification icons, such as where they pop up on the taskbar. Ubuntu 9.04 beta also includes a whole new notification system, as shown in the Flash movie here:

Boot performance

A number of improvements to the Ubuntu start-up process bring significantly improved boot performance to Ubuntu 9.04 RC. Please open bugs if you experience any degradation, and tag them with boot-performance.

Linux kernel 2.6.28

Ubuntu 9.04 RC includes the 2.6.28-11.37 kernel based on

Ext4 filesystem support

Ubuntu 9.04 RC supports the option of installing the new ext4 file system. ext3 will remain the default filesystem for Jaunty, and we will consider ext4 as the default for the next release based on user feedback. There has been extensive discussion about the reliability of applications running on ext4 in the face of sudden system outages. Applications that use the conventional approach of writing data to a temporary file and renaming it to its final location will have their reliability expectations met in Ubuntu 9.04 beta; further discussion is ongoing in the kernel community.
Ext4 support in GRUB was provided by Colin King. If you choose to upgrade your / or /boot filesystem in place from ext2 or ext3 to ext4 (as documented on the ext4 wiki), then you must also use the grub-install command after upgrading to Ubuntu 9.04 RC to reinstall your boot loader. If you do not do this, then the version of GRUB installed in your boot sector will not be able to read the kernel from the ext4 filesystem and your system will fail to boot.
Ext4 support in gparted has been provided by Curtis Gedak.

Cloud computing

Ubuntu 9.04 Server Edition makes it easy to experiment with cloud computing. Eucalyptus, an open source technology which is included in Ubuntu as a technology preview, enables you to use your own servers to deploy, experiment and test your own private cloud that matches the Amazon EC2 API. You can dynamically create virtual machines, configure multiple clusters into a single Cloud and even provide an EBS (elastic block storage) equivalent and an S3 compatible storage manager.

Turn-key mail servers

The dovecot-postfix package in Ubuntu 9.04 RC provides an easy-to-deploy mail server stack, with support for SMTP, POP3, and IMAP with TLS and SASL.
dovecot-postfix was packaged by Ante Karamatić.

Known issues

There are a small number of known bugs that users may run into with Ubuntu 9.04 RC which will be fixed before the final release. We have documented them here for your convenience along with any known workarounds.
For a full list of errata for Ubuntu 9.04, please see the Ubuntu 9.04 release notes.

  • When using the ext4 filesystem, accessing large files can trigger a kernel panic and filesystem corruption. The fix for this problem will be included in the final 9.04 release. Users installing from the Ubuntu 9.04 Release Candidate may wish to avoid this problem by using the default ext3 filesystem and converting it to ext4 after release. 348836.

  • The OEM setup mode is not usable in the Kubuntu release candidate. This will be corrected for the final release. 361665.

  • The mythtv frontend in mythbuntu fails to render fonts correctly when using video drivers other than the Intel or closed-source nVidia drivers. This issue is expected to be resolved for the final 9.04 release. 341898

Participate in Ubuntu

If you would like to help shape Ubuntu, take a look at the list of ways you can participate at

Help Spread the Word About Ubuntu 9.04

New banners are available for counting down the days until the Ubuntu 9.04 release:
You can add the countdown banner to your website to help build excitement for the new release as the date approaches.

More information

You can find out more about Ubuntu on the Ubuntu website and Ubuntu wiki.
To sign up for future Ubuntu development announcements, please subscribe to Ubuntu's development announcement list at:

What is Ubuntu?

 Ubuntu is a community developed operating system that is perfect for laptops, desktops and servers. Whether you use it at home, at school or at work Ubuntu contains all the applications you'll ever need, from word processing and email applications, to web server software and programming tools.
Ubuntu is and always will be free of charge. You do not pay any licensing fees. You can download, use and share Ubuntu with your friends, family, school or business for absolutely nothing.
We issue a new desktop and server release every six months. That means you'll always have the latest and greatest applications that the open source world has to offer.
Ubuntu is designed with security in mind. You get free security updates for at least 18 months on the desktop and server. With the Long Term Support (LTS) version you get three years support on the desktop, and five years on the server. There is no extra fee for the LTS version, we make our very best work available to everyone on the same free terms. Upgrades to new versions of Ubuntu are and always will be free of charge.
Everything you need comes on one CD, providing a complete working environment. Additional software is available online.
The graphical installer enables you to get up and running quickly and easily. A standard installation should take less than 25 minutes.
Once installed your system is immediately ready-to-use. On the desktop you have a full set of productivity, internet, drawing and graphics applications, and games.

On the server you get just what you need to get up and running and nothing you don't.
More about Desktop Edition »
Get Ubuntu now »

What does Ubuntu mean?

Ubuntu is an African word meaning 'Humanity to others', or 'I am what I am because of who we all are'. The Ubuntu distribution brings the spirit of Ubuntu to the software world.

Saturday, April 18, 2009

Operating System Introduction

An operating system (commonly abbreviated to either OS or O/S) is an interface between hardware and user; it is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the limited resources of the computer. The operating system acts as a host for applications that are run on the machine. As a host, one of the purposes of an operating system is to handle the details of the operation of the hardware. This relieves application programs from having to manage these details and makes it easier to write applications. Almost all computers, including handheld computers, desktop computers, supercomputers, and even video game consoles, use an operating system of some type. Some of the oldest models may however use an embedded operating system, that may be contained on a compact disk or other data storage device.

Operating systems offer a number of services to application programs and users. Applications access these services through application programming interfaces (APIs) or system calls. By invoking these interfaces, the application can request a service from the operating system, pass parameters, and receive the results of the operation. Users may also interact with the operating system with some kind of software user interface (UI) like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI, commonly pronounced “gooey”). For hand-held and desktop computers, the user interface is generally considered part of the operating system. On large multi-user systems like Unix and Unix-like systems, the user interface is generally implemented as an application program that runs outside the operating system. (Whether the user interface should be included as part of the operating system is a point of contention.)

Common contemporary operating systems include Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, Linux, BSD and Solaris. Microsoft Windows has a significant majority of market share in the desktop and notebook computer markets, while servers generally run on Unix or Unix-like systems. Embedded device markets are split amongst several operating systems.

Thursday, April 16, 2009

Full History Of Windows Operating System

Many longtime PC users trace the Microsoft Windows® operating system to the 1990 release of Windows 3.0, the first widely popular version of Windows and the first version of Windows many PC users ever tried. However, Microsoft initially announced the Windows product seven years earlier and released the first version in 1983.

  • The Windows 1.0 product box featured the operating system's new, tiled windows and graphical user interface (GUI).

OS Platform Statistics

Source Date Microsoft Windows Mac OS Linux
Vista XP 2000 All versions
Net Applications March 2009 23.42% 62.85% 1.24% 88.14% 9.77% 0.90%
W3 Counter March 2009 14.76% 70.49% 1.94% 88.67% 5.16% 2.10%
XiTi Monitor December 2008 24.47% 66.04% 1.23% 93.30% 4.46% 1.20%
OneStat December 2008 21.16% 72.02% 0.54% 93.72% 3.66% 0.47%
Median March 2009 22.29% 68.27% 1.24% 90.99% 4.81% 1.05%

Google Operating System

Goobuntu is a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu that Google uses internally. Some have suggested that Google might plan to market the distribution more widely. While both Google and Mark Shuttleworth, creator of Ubuntu, have confirmed that Goobuntu exists and is used internally, both have strongly refuted suggestions that Google has any plans to market the operating system.
Mark Shuttleworth has confirmed that Google contributes patches to Ubuntu but noted that while some Google employees use this modified version of Ubuntu, others use modified versions of other Linux distributions. Google has supported Ubuntu through the Ubucon conferences and in other ways. Although Shuttleworth and Google representatives have denied any plans to release Goobuntu outside the company, it has nonetheless inspired ongoing speculation about Google entering the operating system business.
For More Operating System Concepts